tv Revolutionary War General Andrew Pickens CSPAN July 1, 2018 9:00pm-10:01pm EDT
winter residents of anderson. the anderson's were an old american family. the ties with american revolutionary war ancestors. as a good home for the society today. we are so pleased to have a member of the society of cincinnati interim truce -- introduce our speaker today, please welcome, andrew miller. [applause] >> good evening all and welcome. i was very concerned when the state was chosen because normally, we have a significant snowstorm. that would have been a disaster. had the first day of
spring as far as i can tell so it turned out very well. i thought i might give you a little can't -- context. is onetrait on his book that was painted by a member of the society of cincinnati. his name is time -- tom curtis. a member of the new york society. no one ever said my ancestors name was handsome and i think if you look at the cover of the book he will probably concur. i will have to tell you a couple of funny stories. as you can see, i have a somewhat prominent nose. the board of pickens county, decided theya,
were going to have a statute sculpted of andrew pickard. i was invited down to give the keynote address along with lindsey graham. somebody took a picture of the statue and of me standing next to the statue and the noses are absolutely indistinguishable. dna to determine ancestry. in any event, a few years back, whot call from a gentleman is the editor of the chickens
coming newspaper -- pickens county newspaper. firm with me, he said mr. miller, you owe it to the people of this county. there was no ambivalence to the statement. provide them with a portrait so that we can hang it in the office. i told him i appreciated his suggestion and ablative that i could do. someone told me they went to pickens county for farm work earlier this week but it is not .eally a destination location situationnt, the called for another call from mr.
alexander, he said there is only thing i would like to do. one more portrait. the reason this ties and is because this portrait is now hanging at hopewell. his son was then governor of south carolina. hangs in this building that is in the process of restoration. seecourage you to go by and this estate. instead, it is a farmhouse. you have a porch, three rooms downstairs and two rooms upstairs and a stairwell and that is it.
nonetheless, it was built in 1815. that is there to see. there was a sort given to andrew pickens by the continental club curse -- congress as a recognition of valor. they commanded part of the militia. thehat role, he had foresight to think, the militia always retreated when faced with reprieve. if the militia in this instance actually retreated and then came back on the battlefield, they
might actually produce winning results. he was absolutely right. the militia came back on the battlefield, the british were astounded. on, thefrom that point british retreated. i'm really privilege to introduce the professor of .istory at clemson university that is where my daughter just he is thefrom it author of several important , one on military history the southern redeemer. , andrew pickens
born inanddaughter, was the hermit touch because andrew pickens grandson was named minister to the court of the 30 in 1857. she was born there. she was very much part of the .outhern redeemer part she was referred to the joan of arc of the self but in southern newspapers. the next book by our distinguished speaker, the southern military school traditions. i had was in west point, not expected it.
every battery was commanded by somebody from the south. it was because of the tradition of southern military school. graduates wente on from their schools to west point and because of their training, did very well. finally, the book that we have in front of us today, i cannot be more pleased by its author. -- just so youe know, he is a retired colonel from the marine corps. i was rotc.
whenever i meet a criminal in colonel in the marine corps, i know i am in some tall grass. think you very much for joining us. [applause] forhank you very much joining us. [applause] tonight to honored speak to you at the society of cincinnati and before i begin, i want to thank you for your welcome and your hospitality. especially, miss katherine harris, who handled all of the logistics of getting me here and to caps on things. millernd, andrew pickens , who indeed is a lot more attractive than his ancestors. tonight to tell about a man who is one of the heroes of the american revolution. revolutionarye
war itself but to the early decades of the american public. most americans today do not know much about andrew pickens. incourse, people who grew up south carolina have heard the name or remember the name from their history class at school. of course, they know that he is associated with the american revolution. non-south carolinians who are well read on the american revolution and are familiar with the basics of the role he played in the war. but not with the rest of his life and not military career. some people know some of what he did. to know whon claim andrew pickens wants. into pickens was a very hard guy to get to know.
i myself spent long time trying to get to the bottom of who andrew pickens wants. what motivated him? what were his core beliefs? why did he do the things he did? how did his contemporaries see him? how did he see himself? i believe that it is very beneficial to us to understand what he did and perhaps even more, why he did them and who he was. let me start with a brief summary of his life for those of you who need a quick introduction or review of what he did and then, i will go back and did a little deeper and discussed with these events tell us about pickens himself. he is born in 1739 in lancaster county pennsylvania to a family of scotch, irish citizens.
the family would respa terrance who had been persecuted for several generations by the authorities. their doctrine and theology is like that of p returns and were inspired by the reformer john calvin. the klan was part of the southern movement of scotch irish people from pennsylvania into maryland and virginia and the rest of the southern country and the carolinas. his first childhood memories would probably have been from the valley of virginia. along thefamily moved border of pop in south carolina when he was 13 or 14. he looked again at the age of 24.
he married rebecca,, the and of the future statesman and they started a family. to prosper as a merchant. he was a justice of peace and the leader of a presbyterian church. at the beginning of the revolution in 1775, he was a lieutenant and immediately joined the patriots like. he participated in the first siege of 1986 -- 1786. he fought in a charity campaign playing a key role with the charities -- charities. cherokees. the 35 of his men were surrounded by charities and -- cherokees and miraculously survived and
one. he continued to participate ofavations to restore order south carolina frontier. spectacularwon a victory over a large enemy force that kill creek, georgia. in 1780, when the british captured charleston, and then occupied most of south carolina , with the promise of being left alone, pickens did as well. as a rebellion spring back to due to south carolina mistreatment in the latter half of 1780, pickens stubbornly held to the terms of his perl and remain neutral -- perl and remained neutral -- parole and
remained nuetral. he was one of the key heroes of the battle in 1781 and he campaigned with nathaniel green in north carolina for the rest of the winter. he helped lead the successful recapture of a best and later that year, his family wounded in utah springs. -- 781, games of bandits and indians were still rating frontier settlements and inflicting massacres on like citizens. pursuitseft several culminating with the highly successful victory over the charities in georgia in 1782. turkey was a sense
united states in the revolutionary war. after the war, pickens started many terms in the southern california legislature. one term of congress from 1783-85 and as a church elder in south carolina just a couple of miles away from the campus. most prominently, he was one of in commissioners at hopewell 1785-86 with the charities. newfirst treaty between the united states and the southern tribes. that is the tribes of the legal files. he was a treaty negotiator and a frontier diplomat between his next in the next for the 17 years. he came to be known by the indians for his fair dealings.
great in his life, he moved again, 23 miles northwest of pendleton, to the very sight of the flight. in the northwestern corner of south carolina and retired. in 1917, his last will and testament included conditions for the slaves. that is the factual overview of what he did. why does it matter? why do we need to dig deeper? why try to understand why dickens -- pickens was? i remember the day that i tried to set out to figure that out. it is the day that i read about him walking into the headquarters of a british officer and informing him to his face that he was announcing his
perl and rejoining the american revolution -- rebellion. occurred ination the early days of 1780 are right at the end of november. earlier that year, south carolina had literally been conquered. in may of 1780, the city of charleston had fallen and 5000 american troops had surrendered to the british. the most devastating capitulation of american arms until macarthur's surrender in the philippines and 42. 1780-81,at this point, the most important figure in the that the many argue decisive leader of the world was itself. nothing of importance at the time was going on around philadelphia, boston, new york, and so on.
they are forced nearly every patriot officer promising not to take up arms. werehuman on, the british overplayed their hand changing the terms of the agreement so south carolina and could be punished for not actively supporting the british army. remaining neutral may not be enough. dan burton houses, arms, churches, especially, presbyterian church is, it's stolen property, the beast women, and occasionally killed prisoners of four. the insurgency spring back to life. to announce their parole at the risk of their lives and took up arms again. pickens did not. he believed he is given his word and until he himself was abused,
he is bound by his own. troops cameal list to his plantation, while he was away, they destroyed his property and taunted and insulted his wife. now, at that point, pickens could have easily slipped off into the land as many men were doing at the time, and rejoined the rebel ranks. instead, he marched right into the nearest british headquarters and informed the senior officer and return to the cause. amazingly, that officer had so much respect for pickens that he did not have him arrested on the spot. instead, he bent pickens to reconsider warning him that if he were to be captured, he would
certainly be harmed for treason. forimply think the captain his previous courtesies, turned around, walked out, and roadway. within weeks, he reemerged as a hero. after reading the story, i was up. -- hooked. i wanted to know more about this man and his inner motivations. we do have a few descriptions of them. he was about 510 -- 5'10". frankly not very attractive. taciturn orus and stern demeanor. people found him taciturn and very hard to know. one man said that before he uttered a word, he would take it out of his mouth between his fingers and examine it.
publicly, hiseak words for a few, simple, and direct. people also considered him to be scrupulously honest. as a military officer, he was determination. as a judge, he was fair and incorruptible. he held devotions with his family twice a day with bible readings and prayers, and in his life, he was a leader of his presbyterian church. pickens was a rare instance of merit receiving its full and just reward. he became proverbial for honesty and fidelity. we have these descriptions which tell us a lot about and personality. perhaps his character. still, not really what motivated him.
the question for me is what kinds of sources can use to get to these motivations. unlike the ever scribbling thomas jefferson or james orison or benjamin franklin patrick henry, pickens never wrote much. was not really educated. he never said much. he never participated in the 18th century version of looking for the camera. and you pickens was one of the great patriots of the revolutionary revolution. tomy attempts to describe our own generation who pickens was, i've focused on two things. when he lived through and what he became. emerges ishink what a man whose life revolved around a flexibility, a search for
order, and it did concern for virtue. liberty, order, and virtue. for pickens and most of his contemporaries, we have all kinds of sophisticated definitions for liberty. it meantor pickens, the simply the right to raise crops and to speak with them all into from kings. this liberty was not saved the order. whenever these families went from scotland to on ireland, , to pendleton, they immediately tried to establish courts for order. virtue and moral order.
they had now been migrating for over two centuries simply to escape english authority and to establish communities whether families were safe and tierney .- tierney order mental the one hand, the wise enforcement of just cause. the leading citizens of the frontier continuing petitioned whereyal authorities courts, shares, and paramilitaries forces were protected from the indians that made life so dangerous. without order, families were not safe. the other hand, people raised in the religious traditions also understood order in the moral term. an orderly society depended on the collective and individual morality of its members.
order dependedd on the virtue of the people. without virtue, individual search for liberty, is threatened by public order. the moral men into their own happiness, committed crimes in the past -- oppressed the liberties of other men in order to expand their own power. the corruption of the human tort was the primary threat liberty and order causing society to descend of anarchy. liberty, order, and virtue were interdependent finally, it was not just christian theology that make people aware of the reality of human depravity, for pickens, real life reflected doctrine, he came of age in a violent world. sprout to death at an early age and spent a great deal of his life fighting attendance,
british soldiers, and hospital -- hostile men. even those who fought alongside, were eventually prone to exercise and tierney, cruelty, and inhumanity. -- example, take a charity cherokee war and its terrifying result. war exploded onto the frontier. the sureties finally responded to my publications and struck several white settlements. along came the community in western south carolina, they were ambushed along the road to a vista and 23 were killed. a 15-year-old girl hid in the bushes and washing or as love ones, including her own grandmother, were slain. the calvin klein fled to thoroughly to the settlement where they lived. a romance developed between the young rebecca in the pickens.
they volunteered to fight the charities and appointed the other attendants. after a series of skirmishes and devastation of dozens of jerky villages, the war ended. would return. moved thereelf where he married rebecca. to the komen family, pickens grew land, grew crops, and try to establish himself as a merchant. within a few years, he was a young father, addresses that piece, and a founder of local presbyterian church. to establishing order, peace, and public virtue. in the aftermath of the cherokee lawof 1760, much of what and order had existed in the frontier settlements were had existed, had broken down. large games of outlaws run the area stealing horses and money,
terrorizing upstanding citizens, and objectives of women and girls. meanwhile, vigilantes call themselves regulators and moderators and try to take the law into their own hands and fight back. untilini civil war lasted 1769. all the while, pickens in his camp all the while, pickens and his calhoun relatives tried just -- desperately to establish liberty, order, and virtue in the midst of chaos. the revolution came early to south carolina. real authority was not in the hands of the king's appointees, the rebellious merchants in the low country who
had formed their own governing bodies. the settlers on the frontier carried very little abo act, whichp act, tea had little direct effect on them. then it became clear that the british were ready to provoke fearedattacks, the most threat to order and liberty to help crush the rebellion. foughtw less white men with the indians. it is true that some colonists saw the high-handed whig officials in charleston as the real threats to order. for many who had been sitting on the fence, the idea that the king's ministers would unleash the indians on them and their families made them spring into action, rally the militia, gather ammunition, and spring into the fight. i don't have time to talk about the sieges of '96, the snow
campaigns, or picken's miraculous victories, the victories at cal creek, utah, . i'm sure that a number of you know those stories. a recentn't, i know book that tells about them. [laughter] throughout the revolutionary war, brigadier pickens who began as a lieutenant and then a captain, established himself as a man of courage and action. this makes us forget that in south carolina, it was a time of war., murder, and civil arrived at aomers charity attack, it was pickens who rallied his neighbors,
gathered ammunition and gave orders. but menno long speeches trusted him to lead and make tough decisions under pressure. he was the kind of man who took charge when the bullets began to fly when the natural reaction would be to panic. there were others who had these traits, but there are a few things that stand out about pickens. nasty in a savage and andl war in which torries neighbors murdered each other, indians white men and scalped each other alive, in which white men raided villages and killed indian women and children, pickens seemed to prefer boundaries of civilized behavior. they tried to arrest american militia men who murdered captured troops and apologized
to british officers when such incidents occured. he understood the standard way to fight indians was to destroy their villages and food supplies. but unlike other white officers, the killing of captives and women and children, even after his own brother john was tortured and killed by the cherokees. unlike many militia officers, including the redoubtable thomas problempickens had no working with continental army officers including daniel morgan and nathanael greene. he was unconcerned about his own autonomy or ego and acted pragmatically under the assumption that the best way to beat the british was with the militia and the continentals combining their strength. one thing that american military officers have time -- have come to understand much better is
that in insurgency or counterinsurgency operations, the key to victory is showing your side can provide security population. if your forces are nearby and capable and show they can provide some semblance of security, you can reward your friends and punish your enemies, then the flow of intelligence, supplies, and recruits starts to flow your ways. meanwhile, all of those things are denied to the enemy. that was one reason why the militia was so important, particularly in the south where the war was truly a civil war. ine the calpens campaign upper south carolina. continentaln's forces were in the northwest portion of the state and morgan
was undecided on whether to give battle once the british troops approached him from the middle of the state or whether to retreat to north carolina. militiae, pickens detachments covered this broad stretch of hinterland between morgan's army and cornwallis. they gathered grain, horses and other supplies and prevented those resources from being gathered by the tories or the british. their presence encouraged some citizens to join their ranks and discouraged them from joining general cornwallis. as the british began moving scoutsmorgan, pickens' allowed morgan frequent updates on locations. because they had gathered so much food, tarleton was forced to drive his men with little
rest so he could try to reach morgan before his supplies ran out. by the time they reached the cal battlefield, they were tired and hungry. morgan had finally said his troops at calpence where they played an extremely pivotal role in the actual battle which is a great story in itself. the great american victory at calpens would have been impossible without the effort of the militia during the battle and in the weeks leading up to it. out for being willing to conduct the war, two he stood out for his ability to forge a partnership between the militia and the continental forces of daniel green and nathaniel morgan and white horse harry lee and others. for pickens, once the war was over, it was over.
it was time to arrange an honorable peace with the indians and reestablish order. his primary foe had been crushed in the war. the towns and corn crops were crushed or destroyed. dozens of charity bands were starving, sick and naked. one of the first things that pickens did was persuade the governor to send a large shipment of supplies to his former enemies and he funded his own money to pay for it until the state reimbursed him later. this would forever change the way that the cherokees viewed pickens. over a period of two decades, he theed tirelessly to enforce cherokee, creek, choctaw, and cherokee indians.
he was one of a number of officials who tried to draw lines on maps and establish honest trading practices that would allow white americans and indians to live in peace. soon after the war, pickens moved from long cane and established his hopewell plantation, and in 1785, he and two other federal treaty commissioners concluded thate between --treaty the cherokee leaders, such as whenassle, were stunned the white leaders did not demand any new sections of land. unfortunately there were many state governments and private citizens who had no intention of respecting the treaties made by the federal government. people did not
secure all of the victories we wish they had. they accelerated the process of taking away things from the indians. while winning freedom for themselves and their descendents, they denied it to the black americans in their midst. thene in the south until start of the revolutionary war thought of slavery as a moral issue. by that time pickens was nearly 40 and had acquired slaves himself. thehe time of his death, south had embraced slavery more than ever and brushed aside any qualms about it. pickens case was interesting. he had a slave whome everyone called old dick. there are stories of dick helping to hide and protect pickens family during the war when bands of tories were roaming the area. old dick was by pickens' side
during battles and campaigns. ens said there was no braver man in the army band old dick. slave in thely army whom pickens allowed to carry a long knife. he would not allow anyone, even his sons, to talk down to old dick. his life, his of tol give a lot of attention his slaves. he said that as his province allowed slaves to bring benefit and comfort to his family, they must be "used with justice and humanity." he even made additional arrangements for his slaves to be free, assuming his youngest son joseph did not survive him. pickens did not just one-off
mention the emancipation of his slaves, he specified they be given a plot of land, which one it was, tools, plows, farm animals, and everything needed to set themselves up as farmers. we don't know what happened to these people after pickens died, but his attempt to provide for them in this way cut against the grain in that time. in the 1780's, there had been a upperf -- that swept the south, but that wave had long passed by 1812 and never touched the deep south at all. about to be careful sounding like i am congratulating pickens on writing a will and i am not claiming that this model of racial paternalism was the most just proposition. whileriting about that
had used his providence to acquire slaves, he could not deny them their humanity. i want to pause and say something about how pickens described his own life. former war comrade, lee, was trying to write a book. lee wrote pickens and asked him to talk about his experiences. condensedote back and 72 years of war and life on the frontier to eight pages. lee wanted more and asked pickens to write more so he wrote four more pages. in those letters he provides the bare minimum of factual information. there is no introspection, no internal feelings, no discussion
or defense of his decisions, no spin. the only two battles he went into detail on were calpens and kettle creek. two battles and which lee was not there so pickens decided to tell him something about it or that he thought had incorrect information around. s recited almost nothing of his own experiences. except to correct the record of who captured the sort of major macarthur. he said pickens had forced to surrender near the end of the .attle a recent biography of james j jackson hadmes
claimed that jackson captured the sword and pickens claimed that was incorrect. he went into detail about the battle of kettle creek, and important victory about which little was known outside georgia and south carolina. lee was with pickens at the siege of augusta, he was present at the siege of '96, was present at the battle of utah, and was with pickens through a large degree of the north carolina campaigns. pickens didn't say anything about that. he recovered all of augusta and the battle of utah in one sentence. hee siege of a gust of '96, t battle of utah, and other service with the army, you know whether i did my duty. pickens played a very important role in all of these battles.
take utah for one. he played an extremely important role in utah and the was a lot he could have talked about, including the fact he was badly wounded there. a bullet struck the buckle on his sword belt and left a permanent indentation in his chest. he was knocked off his horse and unconscious and presumed dead and carried off the battlefield. the injury caused him pain the rest of his life. his contemporaries would have been thrilled to hear this account of the battle, what it was like to feel the bullet hitting his chest, to realize he had barely escaped death and to ruminate on that experience. they would have loved to have read several pages, as our own generation loves to hear stories of sacrifice, valor and trauma. pickens gave them half a sent ence. at the battle of utah, you know
whether i did my duty. ickens concludes simply, leave it to the public to say whether in my public transactions i have discharged the duties assigned me in honesty and fidelity, and whether i have been a humble instrument in the hands of providence to its advantage. then he concludes -- whatever the public sentiment may be, i have a witness in myself that my public life and conduct have been moved and al fored by an ardent ze the welfare and happiness of my country. that is the closest thing to self-promotion and sping w we gt from andrew pickens. it is as if he is saying, here is what i did, let my country give me the verdict and even if -- we know who
andrew pickens was especially at this time in our nation's history. hey several hundred yards was one of many victories over the indians. this would have been right within sight. this was a place of bloodshed and conquest where men shot and stabbed each other in the dark and scalped each other alive, a place where pickens believed he had to fight to safeguard liberty and order and the promise of prosperity for his family and future generations. pickens settled and turned that bloody ground into a place of peace and reconciliation. yet another church, the old stone church which still stands. there he made peace with his former enemies offering peace and gifts.
he literally offer the hand of friendship to his foes. perhaps even with some who had colluded in the death of his own brother. pickenstmas day, 1785, served a christmas dinner to several cherokee indians who still remained on his property after having signed a treaty several weeks before. wrote from there that he his letter and directly rebuked other white men who violated the treaty, who violated the principles of liberty, order, and virtue. we live in a society today where we often feel liberty is threatened. virtue is in short supply. after over two sentries of nstional prosperity, america often feared that opportunities could narrow, economic disaster could strike, and they might not be able to provide well for
their children. there is great need of reconciliation. andrew pickens was not a learned man, but he understood that hard times might come, disaster might strike, and human beings often will act selfishly and violently. there will be dishonest -- dishonesty and corruption. the men and women of his generation met some of the challenges better than others, but it was in the face of those challenges than good men and women had to step up, they had to fight, they had to protect their families, they had to pray, they had to do what conscience told them was right, they had to put conscience ahead of themselves, and ultimately, they had to forgive and seek peace. whoways trying to remember andrew pickens was and what andrew who andrew pickens was and what andrew pickens did. thank you. [applause]
catherine has a microphone she is walking around with if anybody would like to ask any questions. >> [inaudible] rod: thank you. that is a popular question and a very interesting question. wrote in that pickens his letter to lee. lee was curious about what pickens would say about that.' i had very little connection with him during the war and i found him vain and uncooperative. [laughter] pickensaid that, understood as well as anybody that sumter was a key figure in
the revolution in south carolina. he was the one holding it all together for a while there. a lot of people found it to the call to work with sumter. he didn't have a lot of connection with marion during the war. afterward, they served in the legislature together. remember that they were operating in different areas of the state. they would not run into each other often. yeah? [inaudible] 1818outh carolina law in permit slaves to be freed? rod: by that time, no. were already closing in by the time he wrote that wil l. had to gowould have through a series of steps to make it happen.
>> have you ever encountered the whatof leroy hamblen, and the note of the relationship between pickens and hammond? rod: he doesn't show up a lot in the story and the book. ary often we find him as direct subordinate under pickens. that is all the detail i can give off the top of my head. --you related to kernel colonel hammond? ok. >> can you give a short version of calpens? very short? said, morgan was debating on whether to make a stand at calpens.
one of the decisive factors that convinced him to stay is pickens finally showed up and his militia detachment were pouring in. men were angry because of what was going on around the countryside and their own homes. they were ready to fight. pickens told morgan that if he retreated to north carolina that most of his men would not follow him. if he stayed and fought, they would fight. morgan put the militia up in the front lines. this is a simplified version of it. the militia were not good at standing and fighting with traditional tactics. withilitia were armed rifles. rifles had a greater range but you could not affix bayonets to
them and could not reload as quickly as with muskets. iftish officers knew that they could stay in ranks and wit hstand that first volley of rifle fire and fix bayonets and charge, the militia would run. so, morgan just went along the front ranks. not much is recorded about anything that pickens said. morgan just said, give me two vollies and you can go home. you can reform behind the continental line. he hoped they would rejoin the battle. give me two volleys and you can go home and how all of the old folks will bless you and the girls will kiss you. that is what they did. they reform behind the continental line, pickens led
them back into the battle and played a decisive role in the final seat of the british. hope that is good enough. >> did pickens have any professional relationship with francis marion? they didn't have much direct contact because they were operating in different parts of the state. after the war, they were both in the legislature. i have not found any correspondence between them. runsure that they had to into each other at the statehouse and perhaps say a few words about the revolution. they never directly served side-by-side. yes, sir? you mentioned, there was a
lot of viciousness and neighbor against neighbor fighting in south carolina during the american revolution. how much violence against loyalists or people who tried to forces,al was done by the stent sibling u -- ostensibly under pickens? and what practical ability did he have to prevent that from happening, if that appeared to be threatened or actually occurred? rod: there was a lot of violence. a short answer. against loyalists, and violence of loyalists against whigs. technically, by the end of thw e war, pickens commanded all militia in the western part of the state. anything that happened anywhere
wastechnically carried out nominally reported to him. as you would expect, his practical ability to control that was limited. why is whyt he -- this is the main thing he wanted to do -- first of all, nathanael greene wanted the tories to be invited back to settle down. pickens says, no way. that is not going to work. they need to leave because there is no way we can maintain order whoe these guys are here carried out atrocities or are related to people who carried out atrocities. it is a civil war. part of the pegasus project is to try to reestablish order. that is what the war is all about. foughtlitiamen, most who
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